At the corpus of articulating this process, he makes a clear distinction between planning and execution. He advises that recording time, managing time, and consolidating time are the three foundational elements to effective executive time management (Drucker, 2004). Moreover, he creates a microeconomic frame of reference for time. In creating this framework, Drucker (2004) notes, “The supply of time is totally inelastic. No matter how high the demand, the supply will not go up” (Drucker, 2004, p. 26). In expounding on the time management nuance, Drucker (2004) points his readers to a subtle, but critical, distinction between time management and time allocation, “The effective executive, therefore, knows that to manage his time, he first has to know where it actually goes” (p. 27). Within the corollary of time allocation, is the irremovable theme of executive effectiveness.
On this wise, Drucker (2004) introduces a tension that exist between executive performance expectations and the premium of time in the relationship building process. “Mixing personal relations and work relations is time-consuming. If hurried, it turns into friction” (p. 31). Against this backdrop, three fundamental management theorems are discussed, the span of control, delegation, and human relations. Essentially, Drucker points to the importance of time in the decision making process, particularly where personnel issues are concerned. In explicating this critical point Drucker (2004) asserts, “Among the effective executives I have had occasion to observe, there have been people who make decisions fast, and people who make them rather slowly. But without exception, they make personnel decisions slowly and they make them several times before they really commit themselves” (p. 32). In other words, leaders while being cognizant of the overall organizational vision, should never discount the value of human capital.
This leadership style facilitates both personal and organizational effectiveness, boosts employee morale, and engenders a healthy organizational culture and climate. The Vroom model of shared decision making is based on a rather complex analytical methodology of decision making, which is fundamentally based on “three criteria – expertise, relevance, and trust in subordinates” (Hoy & Miskel, p. 356). The Vroom model postulates means of arriving at quality decisions. It introduced four rules aimed at achieving this objective namely: the quality rule, the leader information rule, the trust rule (also referred to as goal congruence), and the problem structure rule. Inferentially, this writer postulates that such a conceptual leadership approach maintains effectiveness, creates synergy, and reduces dissonance.
Two other important nuances addressed by Drucker (2004) in the closing pages of chapter 2 deal with “recurrent crisis” (p. 41) and “malorganization” (p. 44). Regarding recurrent crisis, Drucker (2004) writes, “The first task here is to identify the time-wasters which follow from lack of system or foresight. The symptom to look for is the recurrent “crisis,” the crisis that comes back year after year” (p. 41). Of malorganization, Drucker (2004) notes, “Another common time-waster is malorganization. Its symptom is an excess of meetings” (p. 44). Other organizational ills alluded to were, overstaffing and misinformation (Drucker, 2004).
He further submits rather than addressing the symptoms, the causes should be the principal focus. Gorton & Alston (2009) assert, “Leaders who empower their employees pull them, rather than push them, to a goal by embodying the vision toward which the rest of the group strives"(p. 6). In short, this paradigm facilitates the achievement of both personal and organizational effectiveness.
Drucker, P. F. (2004). Know thy time. In The effective executive (pp. 25-51). New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Gorton, R., & Alston, J. A. (2009). School leadership and administration (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational administration: Theory research, and practice (8th ed.). New York, N Y: McGraw-Hill.